Brunel University Research Archive (BURA) >
Schools >
School of Social Sciences >
School of Social Sciences Research Papers >

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/2276

Title: Why good thoughts block better ones: The mechanism of the pernicious Einstellung (set) effect.
Authors: Bilalić, M
McLeod, P
Gobet, F
Keywords: Einstellung effect
set effect
Fixation
Problem solving
Expertise
Eye movements
Chess
Thinking
Confirmation bias
Maynard Keynes
Luchins
schema
template theory
bias in science
Publication Date: 2008
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Cognition (in press)
Abstract: The Einstellung (set) effect occurs when the first idea that comes to mind, triggered by familiar features of a problem, prevents a better solution being found. It has been shown to affect both people facing novel problems and experts within their field of expertise. We show that it works by influencing mechanisms that determine what information is attended to. Having found one solution, expert chess players reported that they were looking for a better one. But their eye movements showed that they continued to look at features of the problem related to the solution they had already thought of. The mechanism which allows the first schema activated by familiar aspects of a problem to control the subsequent direction of attention may contribute to a wide range of biases both in everyday and expert thought - from confirmation bias in hypothesis testing to the tendency of scientists to ignore results that do not fit their favoured theories.
URI: http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/2276
Appears in Collections:School of Social Sciences Research Papers
Psychology

Files in This Item:

File Description SizeFormat
Einstellung-Cognition.pdf320.97 kBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in BURA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 


Library (c) Brunel University.    Powered By: DSpace
Send us your
Feedback. Last Updated: September 14, 2010.
Managed by:
Hassan Bhuiyan