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|Title:||Treatment and removal strategies for estrogens from wastewater|
|Publisher:||Taylor & Francis|
|Citation:||Environmental Technology. 29 (3) 245-267|
|Abstract:||Natural and synthetic steroidal estrogens (estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) are endocrine disrupters, that are discharged consistently from the sewage treatment works into surface waters, thereby causing endocrine disrupting effects to aquatic organisms at trace concentrations (nanogram per litre). Several years of research have been focused on their fate, behaviour and removal in the environment but primarily in the sewage treatment works which acts as a sink for these compounds. This review attempts to summarize the factors involved in the removal of these chemicals from the sewage treatment works. Biological processes, and to a limited extent physio-chemical properties, play a vital role in the endocrinal deactivation of which these compounds. The efficiency of these processes is highly dependent on operating parameters (such as sludge retention time, redox potential, etc) that govern the secondary treatment process of a functional sewage treatment works. Although advanced treatment technologies are available, cost and operational considerations do not make them a sustainable solution.|
|Appears in Collections:||Environment|
Institute for the Environment
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