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|Title:||Studying the time response of a vacuum phototriode and measurement of gamma radiation damage to high voltage capacitors and resistors|
|Publisher:||Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses|
|Abstract:||A vacuum phototriodes (VPT) are the photodetectors used in the endcaps of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Software, interfacing with the commercial program “SIMION 3D” was written to allow the simulation of the temporal response of the VPT. Applying Ramo’s Theorem enabled the time development of the VPT signal to be calculated. In order to validate the simulations, experiments were performed using a 60 ps laser pulses (λ = 435 nm) incident on a number of VPT samples. The simulation reproduced the basic features of the operation of the VPT such as gain vs. voltage, and gain vs. magnetic field strength. The simulation also confirmed the need for a fine mesh anode to achieve a useful gain when operating at high magnetic fields. The experimental work represents the first measurements of the time response of a VPT when excited with a very fast light pulse. Both the simulated and experimental response from the VPT were observed to be fast (few ns) and quite complex. Discrepancies between the simulated and experimental signals were partially explained by a SPICE model which includes the VPT interelectrode capacitances and lead inductances. We conclude that the VPT are fast photodetectors with an intrinsic response time of order 1ns for this geometry. The VPT high-voltage filter cards, which operate at 1 kV and in an intense radiation environment, are critical components. A number of commercial off-the-shelf high voltage resistors and capacitors were evaluated at gamma doses up to 345 kGy. No significant change in value or leakage current was observed. As a result of these studies we were able to demonstrate that these inexpensive components were suitable for use in the 3100 filter cards subsequently installed in the CMS apparatus.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.|
|Appears in Collections:||Electronic and Computer Engineering|
Dept of Electronic and Computer Engineering Theses
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