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|Title:||Assessment of atmospheric emissions due to anthropogenic activities in the state of Qatar|
|Authors:||Al-Maslamani, Mohammed Jassim|
|Publisher:||Brunel University Institute for the Environment PhD Theses|
|Abstract:||Atmospheric pollutants in the state of Qatar are derived from flaring and fugitive emissions due to a combination of new energy projects, operational conditions and plant operational problems. This research is the first attempt to quantitatively assess key atmospheric pollutants in Qatar, in accordance with the Kyoto agreements to reduce greenhouse gas production. Two datasets were analysed: 1. Between 2000 and 2002, data collected by industrial plants, as part of their own procedures, were assembled using a proforma questionnaire, to compile data on fuel consumption, fuel type, chemical characteristics, heat value, specific gravity etc, from industries in Qatar. The survey involved the oil & gas industry, petrochemical factories, power & desalination plants. Fuel data includes sulfur & nitrogen contents, chemical composition of flared gas and C content, some data compiled on road transport and fuel consumption. Analysis revealed significant atmospheric pollution. 2. Independent air-quality monitoring stations collected data between 2003 and 2005 to compare with data provided by industry. Three locations were chosen because of proximity to industrial plants: Mesaieed on the southeast coast, Dukhan on the west coast, and Halul Island, an offshore installation 30 km east of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Five key tropospheric pollutants (NO2, SO2, CO, O3 and PM10), wind speed and wind direction, were monitored hourly from three stations located near gas installations across Qatar. Registered levels of CO, NO2 and SO2 were within Qatari and European Standards. PM10, however, was higher than the standards in all three stations and measured daily O3 levels were sometimes higher than the reference for Halul Island. Therefore, in contrast to industry data, the monitoring sites showed much pollution is below (better than) accepted thresholds, the difference between the two datasets illustrating the complexity involved in correctly monitoring pollution, and the effect of wind direction and dispersal of pollutants. Therefore these results have stimulated a comprehensive response to pollution monitoring in Qatar between 2005 and the present day, leading to reduction in flaring and fugitive emissions over the last few years, by as much as 50% in some operations, as a result of more careful operational planning, upgrading and better controls applied to new and existing projects. This research therefore provided much of the stimulus for emission reduction in Qatar, currently being investigated under the Clean Development Mechanism and Technology Transfer.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.|
|Appears in Collections:||Institute for the Environment|
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