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|Title: ||Re-evaluation of the first synthetic estrogen, 1-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene, and bisphenol A, using both the ovariectomised rat model used in 1933 and additional assays|
|Authors: ||Ashby, J|
|Publication Date: ||2000|
|Publisher: ||Elsevier Science|
|Citation: ||Toxicology Letters, 115(3): 231-238, Jun 2000|
|Abstract: ||1-Keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (THP-1) was reported by Cook et al in 1933 as the first synthetic estrogen. Estrogenic activity was assessed by the induction of vaginal cornification in ovariectomised rats. The corresponding 4-isomer (THP-4) was shown to be inactive. Both chemicals have been re-synthesised and assessed for hormonal activity. Each chemical bound weakly and to the same extent to isolated estrogen receptors, but only at high concentrations. However, they each lacked estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity when evaluated in vitro using a yeast hER assay, and both failed to induce vaginal cornification or uterotrophic effects in ovariectomised rats. THP-1, and to a lesser extent THP-4, were shown to possess weak androgenic and anti-androgenic activity in vitro when evaluated using an hAR yeast assay. Estrogenic activity for bisphenol A (BPA) was subsequently demonstrated by Dodds and Lawson (1936) using the same ovariectomised rat protocol, and this activity has been confirmed and supplemented by positive uterotrophic effects for BPA in the same bioassays.
The present results illustrate the complexity of deriving conclusions regarding the hormonal activities of chemicals. First, some activities observed in isolated hormonal receptor binding assays may not be expressed in functional hormonal assays. This indicates the need for functional hormonal assays in any screening programme. Second, that activities observed for a chemical in one hormonal assay may not be reflected in related hormonal assays. This indicates the need to define assay protocols with some precision when incorporating them into screening batteries. Finally, that some literature reports of hormonal activity for chemicals may not be capable of independent confirmation under apparently identical conditions of test. This illustrates the need to use lists of hormonally active chemicals with care|
|Appears in Collections:||Institute for the Environment Research Papers|
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