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|Title:||Avalanche photodiodes and vacuum phototriodes for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the large hadron collider|
|Keywords:||Electromagnetic calorimetry;Photodetector;Avalanche photodiode;Vacuum phototriode;Radiation hardness|
|Citation:||Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. 604 (1-2) 193-195|
|Abstract:||The homogeneous lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter for the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider operates in a challenging radiation environment. The central region of the calorimeter uses large-area avalanche photodiodes to detect the fast blue-violet scintillation light from the crystals. The high hadron fluence in the forward region precludes the use of these photodiodes and vacuum phototriodes are used in this region. The constructional complexity of the calorimeter, which comprises 75848 individual crystals, plus the activation of material make repair during the lifetime of the detector virtually impossible. We describe here the key features and performance of the photodetectors and the quality assurance procedures that were used to ensure that the proportion of photodetectors that fail over the lifetime of CMS will be limited to a fraction of a percent.|
|Appears in Collections:||Electronic and Computer Engineering|
Dept of Electronic and Computer Engineering Research Papers
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