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|Title:||Effects of solute content on grain refinement in an isothermal melt|
|Keywords:||Solidification;Grain refinement;Undercooling;Isothermal melt;Solute elements|
|Citation:||Acta Materialia, 59(7): 2704-2712, Apr 2011|
|Abstract:||It is well accepted in the literature that for effective grain refinement some solute is required in the melt to restrict the growth of the solid even if potent nucleating particles with a favourable physical nature are present. In this paper we investigate the effect of the solute on grain initiation in an isothermal melt, and an analytical model is developed to account for the effect of solute elements on grain size. This study revealed that the solute elements in the liquid ahead of the growing crystals reduce the growth velocity of the nucleated crystals and increase the maximum undercooling achievable before recalescence. This allows more particles to be active in nucleation and, consequently, increases the number density of active particles, giving rise to a finer grain size. The analytical model shows that the final grain size can be related to the maximum undercooling, average growth velocity and solid fraction at the moment of recalescence. Further analysis using the free growth model and experimental data in the literature revealed that for a given alloy system solidified under similar conditions the grain size can be empirically related to 1/Q (Q is the growth restriction factor) to a power of 1/3, which is considerably different from the empirical linear relationship in the literature. It is demonstrated that the 1/3 power law can describe the experimental data more accurately than a linear relationship.|
|Description:||This is the port-print version of the article. The official published version can be obtained from the link below - Copyright @ 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd|
|Appears in Collections:||Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST)|
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