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Title: Symmetry of Nodal Solutions for Singularly Perturbed Elliptic Problems on a Ball
Authors: Winter, M
Wei, J
Keywords: Symmetry of nodal solutions,;singular perturbation problems, method of moving planes, Liapunov-Schmidt reduction
Issue Date: 2005
Publisher: Indiana Univ Math J
Citation: Indiana Univ Math J 54 (2005), 707-741
Abstract: In [40], it was shown that the following singularly perturbed Dirichlet problem \ep^2 \Delta u - u+ |u|^{p-1} u=0, \ \mbox{in} \ \Om,\] \[ u=0 \ \mbox{on} \ \partial \Om has a nodal solution u_\ep which has the least energy among all nodal solutions. Moreover, it is shown that u_\ep has exactly one local maximum point P_1^\ep with a positive value and one local minimum point P_2^\ep with a negative value and, as \ep \to 0, \varphi (P_1^\ep, P_2^\ep) \to \max_{ (P_1, P_2) \in \Om \times \Om } \varphi (P_1, P_2), where \varphi (P_1, P_2)= \min (\frac{|P_1-P_2}{2}, d(P_1, \partial \Om), d(P_2, \partial \Om)). The following question naturally arises: where is the {\bf nodal surface} \{ u_\ep (x)=0 \}? In this paper, we give an answer in the case of the unit ball \Om=B_1 (0). In particular, we show that for \epsilon sufficiently small, P_1^\ep, P_2^\ep and the origin must lie on a line. Without loss of generality, we may assume that this line is the x_1-axis. Then u_\ep must be even in x_j, j=2, ..., N, and odd in x_1. As a consequence, we show that \{ u_\ep (x)=0 \} = \{ x \in B_1 (0) | x_1=0 \}. Our proof is divided into two steps: first, by using the method of moving planes, we show that P_1^\ep, P_2^\ep and the origin must lie on the x_1-axis and u_\ep must be even in x_j, j=2, ..., N. Then, using the Liapunov-Schmidt reduction method, we prove the uniqueness of u_\ep (which implies the odd symmetry of u_\ep in x_1). Similar results are also proved for the problem with Neumann boundary conditions.
Appears in Collections:Mathematical Science
Dept of Mathematics Research Papers

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