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|Title:||Propagation and reflection of pulse waves in flexible tubes and relation to wall properties|
|Keywords:||Wave speed;Wave intensity analysis;Refection coefficient;Distensibilty;Young's modulus|
|Abstract:||The wall properties of the arteries play an important role in cardiovascular function. Stiffness of large artery is predictive of cardiovascular events. To understand the function of the cardiovascular system, special attention should be paid to the understanding of pulse wave propagation, because pulse waves carry information of the cardiovascular function, and provide information which can be useful for the prevention and diagnosis of diseases. This thesis presents a series of in vitro experimental studies of wave propagation, wave reflection and determination of mechanical properties of flexible vessels. In this thesis, several studies have been included: 1) applied and compared foot-to-foot, PU-loop and lnDU-loop methods for determination of wave speed in flexible tubes and calf aortas; 2) investigated the variation of local wave speed determined by PU-loop with proximity to the reflection site; 3) investigated using wave intensity analysis (WIA) as the analytical technique to determine the reflection coefficient; 4) developed a new technique which based on one-point simultaneous measurements of diameter and velocity to determine the mechanical properties of flexible tubes and calf aortas. In the first study, it is found wave speeds determined by PU-loop and lnDU-loop methods are very similar, and smaller than those determined by foot-to-foot method. The timing of arrival time of reflected wave based on diameter and velocity technique highly agreed with the corresponding timing based on pressure and velocity technique. The shapes of forward and backward non-invasive wave intensities based on diameter and velocity are very similar with the corresponding shapes based on pressure and velocity. Although the density term is not part of the equation, the lnDU-loop method for determining local wave speed is sensitive to the fluid density. In the second study, it is found wave speed measured by PU-loop is varied with proximity to the reflection site. The closer the measurement site to the reflection site, the greater the effect upon measured wave speed; a positive reflection caused an increase in measured wave speed; a negative reflection caused a decrease in measured wave speed. Correction iteration process was also considered to correct the affected measured wave speed. In the third study, it is found, reflection coefficient determined by pressure, square roots of wave intensity and wave energy are very close, but they are different from reflection coefficient determined by wave intensity and wave energy. Due to wave dissipation, the closer the measurement site to the reflection site, the greater is the value of the local reflection coefficient. The local reflection coefficient near the reflection site determined by wave intensity and wave energy are very close to the theoretical value of reflection coefficient. In the last study I found that distensibility determined by the new technique which utilising lnDU-loop is in agreement with that determined from the pressure and area which obtained from tensile test in flexible tubes; distensibility determined by the new technique is similar to those determined in the static and dynamic distensibility tests in calf aortas; Young’s modulus determined by the new technique are in agreement with that those determined by tensile tests in both flexible tubes and calf aortas. In conclusion, wave speed determined by PU-loop and lnDU-loop methods are very similar, the new technique lnDU-loop provides an integrated noninvasive system for studying wave propagation; wave speed determined by PU-loop is affected by the reflection, the closer the measurement site to the reflection site, the greater the change in measured wave speed; WIA could be used to determine local reflection coefficient when the measurement site is close to the reflection site; the new technique using measurements of diameter and velocity at one point for determination of mechanical properties of arterial wall could potentially be non-invasive and hence may have advantage in the clinical setting.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the degree of Docter of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.|
|Appears in Collections:||Brunel Institute for Bioengineering (BIB)|
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