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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/7012

Title: Rethinking clinical trials of transcranial direct current stimulation: Participant and assessor blinding is inadequate at intensities of 2mA
Authors: O'Connell, NE
Cossar, J
Marston, L
Wand, BM
Bunce, D
Moseley, GL
De Souza, LH
Publication Date: 2012
Publisher: Public Library of Science
Citation: PLoS One, 7(10): e47514, Oct 2012
Abstract: Background: Many double-blind clinical trials of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) use stimulus intensities of 2 mA despite the fact that blinding has not been formally validated under these conditions. The aim of this study was to test the assumption that sham 2 mA tDCS achieves effective blinding. Methods: A randomised double blind crossover trial. 100 tDCS-naïve healthy volunteers were incorrectly advised that they there were taking part in a trial of tDCS on word memory. Participants attended for two separate sessions. In each session, they completed a word memory task, then received active or sham tDCS (order randomised) at 2 mA stimulation intensity for 20 minutes and then repeated the word memory task. They then judged whether they believed they had received active stimulation and rated their confidence in that judgement. The blinded assessor noted when red marks were observed at the electrode sites post-stimulation. Results: tDCS at 2 mA was not effectively blinded. That is, participants correctly judged the stimulation condition greater than would be expected to by chance at both the first session (kappa level of agreement (κ) 0.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.47 p = 0.005) and the second session (κ = 0.77, 95%CI 0.64 to 0.90), p = <0.001) indicating inadequate participant blinding. Redness at the reference electrode site was noticeable following active stimulation more than sham stimulation (session one, κ = 0.512, 95%CI 0.363 to 0.66, p<0.001; session two, κ = 0.677, 95%CI 0.534 to 0.82) indicating inadequate assessor blinding. Conclusions: Our results suggest that blinding in studies using tDCS at intensities of 2 mA is inadequate. Positive results from such studies should be interpreted with caution.
Description: Copyright @ 2012 The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and 85 reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The article was made available through the Brunel University Open Access Publishing Fund.
Sponsorship: GLM is supported by the National Health & Medical Research Council of Australia ID 571090.
URI: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi/10.1371/journal.pone.0047514
http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/7012
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0047514
ISSN: 1932-6203
Appears in Collections:Health
School of Health Sciences and Social Care Research Papers
Publications
Brunel OA Publishing Fund

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