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|Title: ||Review of primary frequency control requirements on the GB power system against a background of increasing renewable generation|
|Authors: ||Pearmine, Ross|
|Advisors: ||Song, Y|
|Publication Date: ||2006|
|Publisher: ||Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses|
|Abstract: ||The system frequency of a synchronous power system varies with the imbalance of
energy supplied and the electrical energy consumed. When large generating blocks
are lost, the system undergoes a frequency swing relative to the size of the loss.
Limits imposed on the magnitude of frequency deviation† prevent system collapse.
Operation of frequency responsive plant to control frequency, results in lower
machine efficiencies. Changes to the generation mix on the British transmission
system have occurred in the past ten years, when the response requirement was last
reviewed. Future increased levels of wind turbines‡ will alter the operational
characteristics of the system and warrant investigation.
A process to optimise the response requirements while maintaining statutory limits
on frequency deviation has been identified. The method requires suitable load and
generator models to replicate transmission system performance. A value to substitute
for current load sensitivity to frequency has been presented from empirical studies.
Traditional coal fired generator models have been improved with additional
functions to provide a comparable response with existing units. A novel combined
cycle gas turbine model using fundamental equations and control blocks has also
been developed. A doubly fed induction generator model, based on existing
literature, has been introduced for representing wind turbine behaviour in system
response studies. Validation of individual models and the complete system against
historic loss events has established confidence in the method.
A review of the current system with the dynamic model showed that current primary
response requirements are inadequate. The secondary response requirements
generally show a slight reduction in the holding levels. Simulations including extra
wind generation have shown that there is potential to reduce the primary response
requirement in the future. The secondary response requirements are maintained with
added wind farms.|
|Description: ||This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Engineering and awarded by Brunel University.|
|Appears in Collections:||School of Engineering and Design Theses|
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