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Title: The role of constraints in expert memory
Authors: Gobet, F
Waters, AJ
Keywords: Expert memory;Chunk;Template;Novice;Constraint attunement hypothesis;Template theory;Process models;Vicente;Wang;Contrived task;Product theory;Random positions;Chess;Skill;Perceptual expertise;Computational modelling;Learning;CHREST;Chase;Simon;Ecological psychology;Environment
Issue Date: 2003
Publisher: American Psychological Association
Citation: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 29, 1082–1094. This article may not exactly replicate the final version published in the APA journal. It is not the copy of record.
Abstract: A great deal of research has been devoted to developing process models of expert memory. However, K. J. Vicente and J. H. Wang (1998) proposed (a) that process theories do not provide an adequate account of expert recall in domains in which memory recall is a contrived task and (b) that a product theory, the constraint attunement hypothesis (CAH), has received a significant amount of empirical support. We compared 1 process theory (the template theory; TT; F. Gobet & H. A. Simon, 1996c) with the CAH in chess. Chess players (N = 36) differing widely in skill levels were required to recall briefly presented chess positions that were randomized in various ways. Consistent with TT, but inconsistent with the CAH, there was a significant skill effect in a condition in which both the location and distribution of the pieces were randomized. These and other results suggest that process models such as TT can provide a viable account of expert memory in chess.
Appears in Collections:Psychology
Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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