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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/1339

Title: Templates in chess memory: A mechanism for recalling several boards
Authors: Gobet, F
Simon, HA
Keywords: Chunking theory
Template theory
Expertise
Chess
Short-term memory
Chunk
Recall
Multiple boards
Single subject design
Retrieval structures
Template
Simon
Chase
Ericsson
Interfering tasks
Level of processing
Cooke
Frey
Adesman
Schema
Variable
Slot
High level description
Memory
Ericsson
Kintsch
Long-term working memory
Publication Date: 1996
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Cognitive Psychology, 31(1): 1-40, Aug 1996
Abstract: This paper addresses empirically and theoretically a question derived from the chunking theory of memory (Chase & Simon, 1973): To what extent is skilled chess memory limited by the size of short-term memory (about 7 chunks)? This question is addressed first with an experiment where subjects, ranking from class A players to grandmasters, are asked to recall up to 5 positions presented during 5 seconds each. Results show a decline of percentage of recall with additional boards, but also show that expert players recall more pieces than is predicted by the chunking theory in its original form. A second experiment shows that longer latencies between the presentation of boards facilitate recall. In a third experiment, a Chessmaster gradually increases the number of boards he can reproduce with higher than 70% average accuracy to nine, replacing as many as 160 pieces correctly. To account for the results of these experiments, a revision of the Chase-Simon theory is proposed. It is suggested that chess players, like experts in other recall tasks, use long-term memory retrieval structures (Chase & Ericsson, 1982) or templates in addition to chunks in STM, to store information rapidly.
URI: http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/1339
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1996.0011
Appears in Collections:School of Social Sciences Research Papers
Psychology

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