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Title: Modelling cancellous bone screw performance using finite element models
Authors: Piper, Antony T.
Advisors: Brown, C
Keywords: Intramedullary implants;Screw pull-out;Cement augmentation;Bone cement
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: Implants such as intramedullary nails or cancellous screws are used to mechanically stabilize fractures in bone. They provide reinforcement to the bone if they find good purchase in cancellous bone. Not all implants hold enough loads for mechanical stability and pull-out or cut-out may happen in some cases. This is linked to the interface between the bone and the implant. Computer modelling techniques are used to investigate both the effects of cut-out in a femur model, and the pull-out forces of cancellous bone screws. The bone geometry was based on CT scanned cancellous bone and converted using Mimics® software. The finite element models were produced in ANSYS®. Simple bone models were used to examine a fractured femur under standard gait loading. These models were continuum models and idealised the screw to bone interface in order to ease computational demand. The models were used to investigate the ideal positions of intramedullary devices lag screws on an anterior-posterior view of the implant location. In accordance with literature, an inferior-central or central-central position was the best position of the lag screw, while a superior-anterior or inferior-anterior position was adverse. The introduction of multi-scale modelling in order to investigate cut-out with a discrete bone model was not achieved. Discrete cancellous bone models were used to examine some of the cancellous screw characteristics, including pitch, inner diameter and proximal half angle, while a cancellous screw was also studied using a model of cancellous bone with a range of bone densities. The calculated reaction force for a pull-out of 0.2mm shows the influence of some parameters. Change in the proximal half angle increased the stiffness and strength by about 15% in line with the experimental findings of others, while apparent density changes of 2.5% increased the forces threefold. A significant reduction in reaction force was observed when a particular screw geometry in lower apparent density bone was modelled and rotated through 180° on a plane. Examination of the geometry of the bone/screw interface shows that in certain positions there is very little cancellous bone to support the implant. This will lead to low strength and is very difficult to predict. The same models were used to examine the effect of increasing bone stiffness adjacent to the implant and the use of a cement layer to augment the screw model. The increasing stiffness concluded that an increase in pull-out stiffness can be achieved, even in low quality bone, while the cement augmentation showed a significant increase in pull-out strength, though it was idealised as bonded to the bone and screw.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London
Appears in Collections:Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Theses

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