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Title: Credit default and the real estate market
Authors: Khaled, Fawaz
Advisors: Canepa, A
Costantini, M
Keywords: Credit risk, non-performing loans;Real estate market;Housing affordability, housing consumption;Auto-regressive distributed lags, GMM;Panel data, time series
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: Evidence from various countries over the past two decades proves that swings in house prices have been concomitant with financial instability. The history of financial crises shows that the six biggest banking crises in advanced economies were accompanied by housing busts. Despite the abundance of literature on the forces behind the financial crisis, and in particular studies investigating the connections between financial stability and disturbances in the real estate market, fundamental questions still wait for convincing answers, such as: (i) To what extent is regional heterogeneity in property price increases reflected in dissimilarity in the evolution of credit default? (ii) What role do borrower-related factors such as housing affordability and household indebtedness, and financial market-related factors such as financial developments, play on the growth of bad loans as a main concern for banking sector? (iii) To which extent do banks’ lending behaviour and property prices undermine the stability of the banking sector, and what are the directions of causality between credit defaults, property prices and banks’ lending behaviour? The goal of this thesis is to investigate these issues and explain the practical implications of the findings. This thesis contains three empirical essays. The first essay explores the nexus between house prices and non-performing loans (NPLs), concentrating on the extent to which geographical variations in house prices are translated into regional variations in credit defaults. The stochastic dominance approach has been used for this purpose, with 372 individual US banks. The stochastic dominance analyses disclose symmetric behaviour between NPLs and the scale of house price increments. The essay is further extended by employing Arellano and Bond’s (1991) GMM model to explore the effect of GDP, unemployment rates, lending interest rates and house prices on the growth of NPLs. The outcomes of the GMM estimations reveal a high explanatory power of economic growth, unemployment and lending interest rates on NPLs. In an additional analysis, a generalised panel threshold model is estimated to check for the presence of a threshold point, above which different impacts of house prices might be found. The threshold model specifications provide a threshold point, in relation to which two different impacts of house prices on the evolution of NPLs are estimated. A general consensus in the literature attributes credit defaults to a wide-ranging spectrum of drivers that take into consideration borrower-related factor, lender-related factors and factors related to financial and real estate markets. The second essay attempts to answer the second question mentioned above, by investigating the impact of borrower-related factors, lender-related factors and financial market-related factors in driving NPLs. The impact of these factors on the evolution of impaired loans is explored by estimating fixed effect models then the analysis is extended to dynamic models using the GMM procedure on an annual balanced panel dataset. Household vulnerability, financial developments and housing affordability are found to be significant contributors to the growth of NPLs. The interaction mechanism between the real estate market and the financial system has often been blamed for being the root of financial crises, through the accumulation of housing market bubbles that leads to the ultimate collapse of the financial markets. The third essay, using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag technique, looks for the presence of cointegrating relationships between mortgage defaults, property prices and bank lending in Hong Kong. Our findings reveal evidence of cointegrating relationships between bank lending, property prices and mortgage defaults in the long term, which governs the correction mechanism between these variables. These outcomes call for more effort to be devoted to maintaining a balanced relationship between these factors. The essay also finds evidence of short-term dynamics between these variables. Importantly, loan-to-value is found to play the most effective role in curbing mortgage default risk in the portfolios of the Hong Kong banking sector.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London
Appears in Collections:Economics and Finance
Dept of Economics and Finance Theses

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