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Title: Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) in single edge notched bend (SEN(B))
Authors: Khor, WeeLiam
Advisors: Moore, P
Brown, C
Pisarski, H
Wang, B
Keywords: Fracture mechanics;Fracture toughness testing;Material strain hardening;R-curves;Delta-5, δ5
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: This thesis investigates the quantity Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) as a means to assess fracture toughness when measured in the Single Edge Notched Bend (SENB) specimen setup. A particular objective is to assess the effectiveness of the test when used for high strain-hardening materials (e.g. stainless steels). This has been an increasing concern as the current available methods were generally designed for lower strain hardening structural steel. Experimental work on CTOD tests included silicone casting of the crack, and constant displacement tests were also performed. The silicone castings enable physical measurement of the crack under an optical microscope. Results from a series of Finite Element (FE) models were validated from the experiments. δ5 surface measurements were obtained using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) as a courtesy of TWI, which were compared to surface CTOD measurements from the silicone castings. In addition to the experiments and Finite Element modelling, archived test data from TWI was processed, showing analytical differences between current Standard CTOD equations. CTOD calculations from BS 7448, ISO 12135, ASTM E1820 and WES 1108 were compared to the experimental and FE modelling results. For high strain hardening material, CTOD predicted by Standard equations (apart from those in BS 7448 and single point CTOD from ISO 12135) were lower than the values determined from silicone measurements and modelling. This potentially leads to over conservative values to be used in Engineering Critical Assessments (ECA) or material approval. Based on a series of different strain hardening property models, a relationship between strain hardening and the specimen rotational factor, rp was established. An improved equation for the calculation of CTOD is proposed, which gave good estimation of the experimental and Finite Element modelling results. The improved equation will be proposed for future amendments of the ISO 12135 standard. The results of this research enable the accurate fracture characterisation of a range of engineering alloys, with both low and high strain hardening behaviour in both the brittle and ductile fracture regime.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London
Appears in Collections:Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Dept of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Theses

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