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Title: Metal and oxide nanoparticles: Green biosynthesis using Portobello Mushroom Spores (PMS) for nanocomposites and replicas, properties and applications
Authors: AL-Timimi, Iman Abdullah Jaaffer
Advisors: Sermon, P A
Silver, J
Keywords: Nanoparticles;Ag and Au nanoparticles;Portobello Mushroom Spores (PMS);PMS-held nanohydroxyapatite;PMS nanocomposites and drug delivery nanotechnology
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: This thesis describes novel research using Portobello mushroom spores (PMS) as a biotemplate and reducing agent that may be used to produce nanocomposites and replicas with societal benefits. First, the use of PMS as a green eco-friendly bioreagent for the biosynthesis of Ag, Au and TiOx nanoparticles (NPs) and their hybrids is described. These have been characterised using SEM, TEM, XRD, FTIR, UV, SIMS, DLS and TGA (where a full list of acronyms is to be found on page iv). The spherical shape, location and mean diameter of the PMS-held (5-30nm) Ag and Au NPs were confirmed. PMS functional groups are comparable with those in plant sources and allow them to act as reducing/capping/stabilising agents. Second, the sequential biosynthesis of PMS-held Ca2+, CaCO3 and nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) is described where surface nucleation and growth are facilitated by biotemplate surface hydrophilic polar groups (-OH and -COO-). XRD and HRTEM suggest that the nHAp so formed has lower crystallinity and greater directed growth in the (002) direction than commercial nHAp (e.g. Bio-Oss), making PMS-routes useful for the delivery of artificial bone (after subsequent PMS removal). Furthermore, PMS-held nHAp showed more rapid in-vitro mineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF). Third, it is shown that ascorbic acid (AA), haemoglobin (Hb) and insulin (In) can be loaded into/released by PMS through its cell walls faster than with synthetic hydrogels (PVA); the transdermal use of PMS nanocomposites is considered in the context of drug delivery nanotechnology, avoiding size-dependent toxicity. Fourth, it is shown by traditional diffusion and novel methods that the antimicrobial activity especially of Ag/PMS, but also TiOx/PMS and Ag-TiOx/PMS (but not Au/PMS) is good in the inhibition of the growth of E.coli and S.aureus bacteria. The highest activity of Ag/PMS is attributed to Agx+ release. Fifth, the synthesis of NPs/PMS and biomimetic TiOx/PMS has shown to lead to good photocatalysis for the removal of coloured organic pollutants (e.g. methyl orange) from water, with faster rates of removal in molecules/mg/s and turnover numbers (TON) (s-1) than commercial anatase-rutile TiO2 (P25) possibly as the texture of the titania replicas raises the number of multiple reflections of light.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London
Appears in Collections:Wolfson Centre for Sustainable Materials Development and Processing
Dept of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Theses

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