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dc.contributor.authorBrian, JV-
dc.contributor.authorBeresford, NA-
dc.contributor.authorWalker, J-
dc.contributor.authorPojana, G-
dc.contributor.authorFantinati, A-
dc.contributor.authorMarcomini, A-
dc.contributor.authorSumpter, JP-
dc.identifier.citationEnvironmental Science and Technology, 43(1): 214 - 218, Nov 2008 (online)en_US
dc.descriptionThe official published version can be obtained from the link below - Copyright @ 2009 American Chemical Societyen_US
dc.description.abstractChemical risk assessment procedures assign a major role to standardized toxicity tests, in which the response of a particular organism to a single test substance is determined under otherwise constant and favorable conditions in the laboratory. This approach fails to consider the potential for chemical interactions, as well as failing to consider how the toxicological response varies, depending on the conditions of exposure. As yet, the issue of confounding factors on chemically mediated effects in wildlife has received little attention, despite the fact that a range of physicochemical parameters, including temperature, water quality, and pH, are known to modify chemical toxicity. Here, we consider how the estrogenic response of fish varies with regard to hypoxia. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to a mixture of estrogenic chemicals under hypoxic or normoxic conditions. Their estrogenic response was characterized using an in vivo assay, involving the analysis of the egg yolk protein, vitellogenin (VTG). The results revealed that there was no effect of hypoxia on the VTG response in either treatment group at the end of the exposure period. This suggests that this end point is robust and relatively insensitive to the effects of any physiological changes that arise as a result of hypoxia. The implications of these negative findings are discussed in terms of their relevance with regard to the development of risk assessment policy.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was funded by a grant from the Natural Environment Research Council(NE/D00389X/1).en_US
dc.subjectFathead minnowen_US
dc.subjectMultiple stressen_US
dc.subjectEndocrine disruptionen_US
dc.titleHypoxia does not influence the response of fish to a mixture of estrogenic chemicalsen_US
dc.typeResearch Paperen_US
pubs.organisational-data/Brunel/Brunel (Active)-
pubs.organisational-data/Brunel/Brunel (Active)/Institute for the Environment-
pubs.organisational-data/Brunel/Brunel (Active)/Research Centres-
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Institute for the Environment

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