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|Title:||A novel musculoskeletal joint modelling for orthopaedic applications|
|Publisher:||Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses|
|Abstract:||The objective of the work carried out in this thesis was to develop analytical and computational tools to model and investigate musculoskeletal human joints. It was recognised that the FEA was used by many researchers in modelling human musculoskeletal motion, loading and stresses. However the continuum mechanics played only a minor role in determining the articular joint motion, and its value was questionable. This is firstly due to the computational cost and secondly due to its impracticality for this application. On the other hand, there isn’t any suitable software for precise articular joint motion analysis to deal with the local joint stresses or non standard joints. The main requirement in orthopaedics field is to develop a modeller software (and its associated theories) to model anatomic joint as it is, without any simplification with respect to joint surface morphology and material properties of surrounding tissues. So that the proposed modeller can be used for evaluating and diagnosing different joint abnormalities but furthermore form the basis for performing implant insertion and analysis of the artificial joints. The work which is presented in this thesis is a new frame work and has been developed for human anatomic joint analysis which describes the joint in terms of its surface geometry and surrounding musculoskeletal tissues. In achieving such a framework several contributions were made to the 6DOF linear and nonlinear joint modelling, the mathematical definition of joint stiffness, tissue path finding and wrapping and the contact with collision analysis. In 6DOF linear joint modelling, the contribution is the development of joint stiffness and damping matrices. This modelling approach is suitable for the linear range of tissue stiffness and damping properties. This is the first of its kind and it gives a firm analytical basis for investigating joints with surrounding tissue and the cartilage. The 6DOF nonlinear joint modelling is a new scheme which is described for modelling the motion of multi bodies joined by non-linear stiffness and contact elements. The proposed method requires no matrix assembly for the stiffness and damping elements or mass elements. The novelty in the nonlinear modelling, relates to the overall algorithmic approach and handling local non-linearity by procedural means. The mathematical definition of joint stiffness is also a new proposal which is based on the mathematical definition of stiffness between two bodies. Based on the joint stiffness matrix properties, number of joint stiffness invariants was obtained analytically such as the centre of stiffness, the principal translational stiffnesses, and the principal rotational stiffnesses. In corresponding to these principal stiffnesses, their principal axes have been also obtained. Altogether, a joint is assessed by six principal axes and six principal stiffnesses and its centre of stiffness. These formulations are new and show that a joint can be described in terms of inherent stiffness properties. It is expected that these will be better in characterising a joint in comparison to laxity based characterisation. The development of tissue path finding and wrapping algorithms are also introduced as new approaches. The musculoskeletal tissue wrapping involves calculating the shortest distance between two points on a meshed surface. A new heuristic algorithm was proposed. The heuristic is based on minimising the accumulative divergence from the straight line between two points on the surface and the direction of travel on the surface (i.e. bone). In contact and collision based development, the novel algorithm has been proposed that detects possible colliding points on the motion trajectory by redefining the distance as a two dimensional measure along the velocity approach vector and perpendicular to this vector. The perpendicular distance determines if there are potentially colliding points, and the distance along the velocity determines how close they are. The closest pair among the potentially colliding points gives the “time to collision”. The algorithm can eliminate the “fly pass” situation where very close points may not collide because of the direction of their relative velocity. All these developed algorithms and modelling theories, have been encompassed in the developed prototype software in order to simulate the anatomic joint articulations through modelling formulations developed. The software platform provides a capability for analysing joints as 6DOF joints based on anatomic joint surfaces. The software is highly interactive and driven by well structured database, designed to be highly flexible for the future developments. Particularly, two case studies are carried out in this thesis in order to generate results relating to all the proposed elements of the study. The results obtained from the case studies show good agreement with previously published results or model based results obtained from Lifemod software, whenever comparison was possible. In some cases the comparison was not possible because there were no equivalent results; the results were supported by other indicators. The modelling based results were also supported by experiments performed in the Brunel Orthopaedic Research and Learning Centre.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the degree of Docter of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.|
|Appears in Collections:||Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering|
Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Theses
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