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Title: Genotoxic mixtures and dissimilar action: Concepts for prediction and assessment
Authors: Ermler, S
Scholze, M
Kortenkamp, A
Keywords: Aneugen;Clastogen;Genotoxic mixtures;CBMN assay;CHO-K1 cells;Dissimilar action;Similar action
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Springer
Citation: Archives of Toxicology, 88(3): pp. 799-814, (2014)
Abstract: Combinations of genotoxic agents have frequently been assessed without clear assumptions regarding their expected (additive) mixture effects, often leading to claims of synergisms that might in fact be compatible with additivity. We have shown earlier that the combined effects of chemicals, which induce micronuclei (MN) in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells by a similar mechanism, were additive according to the concept of concentration addition (CA). Here, we extended these studies and investigated for the first time whether valid additivity expectations can be formulated for MN-inducing chemicals that operate through a variety of mechanisms, including aneugens and clastogens (DNA cross-linkers, topoisomerase II inhibitors, minor groove binders). We expected that their effects should follow the additivity principles of independent action (IA). With two mixtures, one composed of various aneugens (colchicine, flubendazole, vinblastine sulphate, griseofulvin, paclitaxel), and another composed of aneugens and clastogens (flubendazole, doxorubicin, etoposide, melphalan and mitomycin C), we observed mixture effects that fell between the additivity predictions derived from CA and IA. We achieved better agreement between observation and prediction by grouping the chemicals into common assessment groups and using hybrid CA/IA prediction models. The combined effects of four dissimilarly acting compounds (flubendazole, paclitaxel, doxorubicin and melphalan) also fell within CA and IA. Two binary mixtures (flubendazole/paclitaxel and flubendazole/doxorubicin) showed effects in reasonable agreement with IA additivity. Our studies provide a systematic basis for the investigation of mixtures that affect endpoints of relevance to genotoxicity and show that their effects are largely additive.
Description: This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. This article is distributed under the terms of the creative commons Attribution license which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s)and the source are credited.
ISSN: 0340-5761
Appears in Collections:Environment
Brunel OA Publishing Fund
Institute for the Environment

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