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Title: A virtual environment for the modelling, simulation and manufacturing of orthopaedic devices
Authors: Alrashdan, Khaled Rasheed
Advisors: Esat, I
Keywords: Joint;Games physics;Articulation;Muscle wrapping
Issue Date: 2011
Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate whether the game physics based modelling is accurate enough to be used in modelling the motion of the human body, in particular musculoskeletal motion. Hitherto, the implementation of game physics in the medical field focused only on anatomical representation for education and training purposes. Introducing gaming platforms and physics engines into orthopaedics applications will help to overcome several difficulties encountered in the modelling of articular joints. Implementing a physics engine (PhysX), which is mainly designed for video games, handles intensive computations in optimized ways at an interactive speed. In this study, the capabilities of the physics engine (PhysX) and gaming platform for modelling and simulating articular joints are evaluated. First, a preliminary validation is carried out for mechanical systems with analytical solutions, before constructing the musculoskeletal model to evaluate the consistency of gaming platforms. The developed musculoskeletal model deals with the human joint as an unconstrained system with 6 DOF which is not available with other joint modeller. The model articulation is driven by contact surfaces and the stiffness of surrounding tissues. A number of contributions, such as contact modelling and muscle wrapping, have been made in this research to overcome some existing challenges in joint modelling. Using muscle segmentation, the proposed technique effectively handles the problem of muscle wrapping, a major concern for many; thus the shortest path and line of action are no longer problematic. Collision behaviour has also shown a stable response for colliding as well as resting objects, provided that it is based on the principles of surface properties and the conservation of linear and angular momentums. The precision of collision detection and response are within an acceptable tolerance controllable by varying the mesh density. An image based analysis system is developed in this thesis, mainly in order to validate the proposed physics based modelling solution. This minimally invasive method is based on the analysis of marker positions located at bony positions with minimal skin movement. The image based system overcomes several challenges associated with the currently existing methods, such as inaccuracy, complication, impracticability and cost. The analysis part of this research has considered the elbow joint as a case study to investigate and validate the proposed physics based model. Beside the interactive 3D simulation, the obtained results are validated by comparing them with the image based system developed within the current research to investigate joint kinematics and laxity and also with published material, MJM and results from experiments performed at the Brunel Orthopaedic Research and Learning Centre. The proposed modelling shows the advantageous speed, reliability and flexibility of the proposed model. It is shown that the gaming platform and physics engine provide a viable solution to human musculoskeletal modelling. Finally, this thesis considers an extended implementation of the proposed platform for testing and assessing the design of custom-made implants, to enhance joint performance. The developed simulation software is expected to give indicative results as well as testing different types of prosthetic implant. Design parameterization and sensitivity analysis for geometrical features are discussed. Thus, an integrated environment is proposed to link the real-time simulation software with a manufacturing environment so as to assist the production of patient specific implants by rapid manufacturing.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.
Appears in Collections:Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Theses

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