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|Title:||The effectiveness of anaerobic digestion in removing estrogens and nonylphenol ethoxylates|
|Citation:||Journal of Hazardous Materials, 199-200, 88 - 95, 2012|
|Abstract:||The fate and behaviour of two groups of endocrine disrupting chemicals, steroid estrogens and nonylphenol ethoxylates, have been evaluated during the anaerobic digestion of primary and mixed sewage sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Digestion occurred over six retention times, in laboratory scale reactors, treating sludges collected from a sewage treatment works in the United Kingdom. It has been established that sludge concentrations of both groups of compounds demonstrated temporal variations and that concentrations in mixed sludge were influenced by the presence of waste activated sludge as a result of transformations during aerobic treatment. The biodegradation of total steroid estrogens was >50% during primary sludge digestion with lower removals observed for mixed sludge, which reflected bulk organic solids removal efficiencies. The removal of nonylphenol ethoxylates was greater in mixed sludge digestion (>58%) compared with primary sludge digestion and did not reflect bulk organic removal efficiencies. It is apparent that anaerobic digestion reduces the concentrations of these compounds, and would therefore be expected to confer a degree of protection against exposure and transfer of both groups of compounds to the receiving/re-use environment.|
|Description:||This is the post-print version of the final paper published in Journal of Hazardous Materials. The published article is available from the link below. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. Copyright @ 2011 Elsevier B.V.|
|Appears in Collections:||Environment|
Institute for the Environment
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