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Title: An evaluation of metal removal during wastewater treatment: The potential to achieve more stringent final effluent standards
Authors: Ziolko, D
Martin, OV
Scrimshaw, MD
Lester, JN
Keywords: Water quality;Copper;Zinc;Nickel;Complexation
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Citation: Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 41(8), 733 - 769, 2011
Abstract: Metals are of particular importance in relation to water quality, and concern regarding the impact of these contaminants on biodiversity is being encapsulated within the latest water-related legislation such as the Water Framework Directive in Europe and criteria revisions to the Clean Water Act in the United States. This review undertakes an evaluation of the potential of 2-stage wastewater treatment consisting of primary sedimentation and biological treatment in the form of activated sludge processes, to meet more stringent discharge consents that are likely to be introduced as a consequence. The legislation, sources of metals, and mechanisms responsible for their removal are discussed, to elucidate possible pathways by which the performance of conventional processes may be optimized or enhanced. Improvements in effluent quality, achievable by reducing concentrations of suspended solids or biochemical oxygen demand, may also reduce metal concentrations although meeting possible requirements for the removal of copper my be challenging.
Description: This is the author's accepted manuscript. The final published article is available from the link below. Copyright @ 2011 Taylor & Francis.
ISSN: 1064-3389
Appears in Collections:Environment
Institute for the Environment

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