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Title: Removal of steroid estrogens in carbonaceous and nitrifying activated sludge processes
Authors: McAdam, EJ
Bagnall, JP
Koh, YKK
Chiu, TY
Pollard, S
Scrimshaw, MD
Lester, JN
Cartmell, E
Keywords: Estrogen;Carbonaceous;Nitrification;Loading;Activated sludge
Issue Date: 2010
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Chemosphere, 81(1), 1 - 6, 2010
Abstract: A carbonaceous (heterotrophic) activated sludge process (ASP), nitrifying ASP and a nitrifying/denitrifying ASP have been studied to examine the role of process type in steroid estrogen removal. Biodegradation efficiencies for total steroid estrogens (ΣEST) of 80 and 91% were recorded for the nitrifying/denitrifying ASP and nitrifying ASP respectively. Total estrogen biodegradation (ΣEST) was only 51% at the carbonaceous ASP, however, the extent of biodegradation in the absence of nitrification clearly indicates the important role of heterotrophs in steroid estrogen removal. The low removal efficiency did not correlate with biomass activity for which the ASPcarbonaceous recorded 80 μg kg−1 biomass d−1 compared to 61 and 15 μg kg−1 biomass d−1 at the ASPnitrifying and ASPnitrifying/denitrifying respectively. This finding was explained by a moderate correlation (r2 = 0.55) between total estrogen loading (ΣEST mg m−3 d−1) and biomass activity (μg ΣEST degraded kg−1 d−1) and has established the impact of loading on steroid estrogen removal at full-scale. At higher solids retention time (SRT), steroid estrogen biodegradation of >80% was observed, as has previously been reported. It is postulated that hydraulic retention time (HRT) is as important as SRT as this governs both reaction time and loading. This observation is based on the high specific estrogen activity determined at the ASPcarbonaceous plant, the significance of estrogen loading and the positive linear correlation between SRT and HRT.
Description: This is the post-print version of the final paper published in Chemosphere. The published article is available from the link below. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. Copyright @ 2010 Elsevier B.V.
ISSN: 0045-6535
Appears in Collections:Environment
Institute for the Environment

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