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Title: Coupled Finite Element Modelling and Transduction Analysis of a Novel EMAT Configuration Operating on Pipe Steel Materials
Authors: Ashigwuike, Evans Chinemezu
Keywords: Ultrasonics;Nondestructive testing;Eddy current;Electromagnetic acoustic transducers
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are advanced ultrasonic transducers that generate and detect acoustic waves in an electrically conducting material without making physical contact with the material unlike its counterpart, the piezoelectric transducers (PZT). The conventional EMAT consists of copper coil that generates the dynamic field when excited with a sinusoidal current, a permanent or electromagnet that provides the bias field and the conducting material specimen. The complex interaction between the bias field and the Eddy current induced within the skin depth of the conducting material by the dynamic field gives rise to the acoustic wave that then propagates within the surface of the material. Within the research a finite element EMAT model was developed using commercial software Comsol Multiphysics, to study and compare the Eddy current density and Lorentz force density generated by three EMAT configurations: The Meander-line, Spiral and Key Type EMAT configuration respectively. It was observed that apart from the ease of fabrication and simplicity of connectivity when stacked in layers, the Key Type coil EMAT showed a high tendency to generate higher amplitude of Eddy current and Lorentz force test materials especially when stacked in layers. Also, the effect of varying some key EMAT parameters was investigated to determine the optimal performance of Key Type EMAT configuration on CS70 pipe steel plate. The research further developed a coupled finite element model using the same software, Comsol Multiphysics to account for the generation, propagation and detection of acoustic wave by the Key Type EMAT configuration on CS70 grade of pipe steel. The model can solve the magnetostatic, electrodynamic and elastic equations that give rise to acoustic wave generation, propagation and detection on the test material. The developed coupled finite element model was validated both analytically and experimentally to establish the validity of the finite element model. The analytical and experimental results obtained were consistent with the numerical result with an average discrepancy less than 9 % percent. Finally, the research developed a novel modelling strategy to decouple and quantify the various transduction forces in operation when normally-biased EMAT and magnetostrictive EMAT configurations are used on various grades of pipe steel materials. The strategy established the value of the critical excitation current beyond which acoustic wave is generated solely by the dynamic Lorentz force mechanism. The critical excitation currents when Magnetostrictive EMAT configurations are used to generate acoustic wave was found to be; 268A, 274A, 279A, 290A and 305A for CS70, L80SS, L80A, TN80Cr3 and J55 respectively. While for Normally-Biased EMAT configurations, the critical excitation current was found to be 190A, 205A, 240A, 160A and 200A respectively. This work also compared the critical excitation current of the two EMAT configurations studied and established that normally-biased EMATs are more efficient in the generation of acoustic waves than their magnetostrictive counterpart due to their lower value of critical excitation current.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London
Appears in Collections:Electronic and Computer Engineering
Dept of Electronic and Computer Engineering Theses

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