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|Title:||Hemp nanocellulose: fabrication, characterisation and application|
|Publisher:||Brunel University London|
|Abstract:||Nanocellulose has gained lots of attentions in recent years due to the development of nanotechnology. Thousands of publications have been reported about the fabrication, characterization and application of nanocellulose, among which most of the nanocelluloses were fabricated from the microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or pulp, and only two methods about the nanocellulose fabrication have been reported, i.e. sulphuric acid hydrolysis and mechanical treatment. The sulphuric acid method can only obtain low yield of nanocellulose and the mechanical treatment can not fabricate nanocellulose with high crystallinity index (CI) and well separation. These problems limit the scale up of nanocellulose to industrial area. Moreover, none of works has reported the application of nanocellulose for the modification of natural fibres and only a few works reported the reinforcement of epoxy with nanocellulose. In this this research, we fabricated nanocellulose directly from hemp fibres by employing oxidation/sonication method with the aim to solve the main problems of nanocellulose fabrication with sulphuric acid hydrolysis or mechanical. By using this method the yield of nanocellulose could up to 54.11 % and the crystallinity of nanocellulose was 86.59 %. In order to expand the application of nanocellulose, we investigated the modification of natural fibres (hemp) with nanocellulose and the fabrication of nanocomposite. Two-step modification, i.e. dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) pretreatment and nanocellulose modification, was used to modify hemp fibres. In this process, we systematically investigated the deformation of hemp fibres, revealed the mechanism of deformation on the mechanical property of single fibre by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and investigated the effect of deformation on the hemp fibre modification with nanocellulose by using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The two-step modification increased the mechanical properties of hemp fibres significantly. Compared with raw hemp fibres, the modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain of the two-step nanocellulose modified hemp fibres increase by 36.13 %, 72.80 % and 67.89 %, respectively. Moreover, two-step modification facilitated the improvement of interfacial property of fibres. This novel natural fibre modification provides new clue to exploit nanocellulose as a green chemical agent for natural fibres modification. We modified nanocellulose by using curing agent of epoxy---diethylenetriamine (DETA). This modification could increase the dispersity of nanocellulose in epoxy and reinforce epoxy. Compared with epoxy, the modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain of the modified nanocellulose/epoxy nanocomposite increased 1.42 %, 15.44 % and 27.47 %, respectively.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London|
|Appears in Collections:||Materials Engineering|
Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Theses
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