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Title: 4D Printing – Dawn of an Emerging Technology Cycle
Authors: Pei, E
Keywords: 4D Printing;Additive Manufacturing;3D Printing;Emerging Technologies;Functionally Gradient Materials;Functionally Graded Materials
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Emerald
Citation: Assembly Automation: the international journal of assembly technology and management, 34 (4): pp. 310 - 314 (2014)
Abstract: There have been incredible advancements in additive manufacturing over the past decade. Three-dimensional (3D) printing has reached a critical mass where these machines are now a common sight in product design companies and institutions. As conventional 3D printing technology matures, creeping up in the background is four-dimensional (4D) printing. This is where “time”, as the fourth dimension, is combined with conventional 3D printing technologies. It is not about how long it takes for a part to be printed; but rather the fact that the 3D printed object still continues to “shape shift” and evolve over a period of time (Pei, 2014). Some may ask what is the value in all of this? The main difference is that conventional 3D printing produces parts that are generally static and inanimate, whereas 4D printing involves carefully designed geometries with precisely controlled deposition of different materials or active fibres that can reshape when subject to external stimuli.
ISSN: 0144-5154
Appears in Collections:Dept of Design Research Papers

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