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Title: Non-cooperative beaconing control in vehicular ad hoc networks
Authors: Goudarzi, Forough
Advisors: Al-Raweshidy, H
Abbod, M
Asgari, H
Keywords: Channel congestion control;Non-cooperative game theory;Fair and stable beaconing;Safety application requirements;Efficient geographical source routing
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: The performance of many protocols and applications of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), depends on vehicles obtaining enough fresh information on the status of their neighbouring vehicles. This should be fulfilled by exchanging Basic Safety Messages (BSMs) also called beacons using a shared channel. In dense vehicular conditions, many of the beacons are lost due to channel congestion. Therefore, in such conditions, it is necessary to control channel load at a level that maximizes BSM dissemination. To address the problem, in this thesis algorithms for adaptation of beaconing to control channel load are proposed. First, a position-based routing protocol for VANETs is proposed and the requirement of adaptive beaconing to increase the performance of the protocol is indicated. The routing protocol is traffic-aware and suitable for city environments and obtains real-time traffic information in a completely ad hoc manner without any central or dedicated control, such as traffic sensors, roadside units, or information obtained from outside the network. The protocol uses an ant-based algorithm to find a route that has optimum network connectivity. Using information included in small control packets called ants, vehicles calculate a weight for every street segment that is proportional to the network connectivity of that segment. Ant packets are launched by vehicles in junction areas. To find the optimal route between a source and destination, a source vehicle determines the path on a street map with the minimum total weight for the complete route. The correct functionality of the protocol design has been verified and its performance has been evaluated in a simulation environment. Moreover, the performance of the protocol in different vehicular densities has been studied and indicated that in dense vehicular conditions the performance of the protocol degrades due to channel load created by uncontrolled periodic beaconing. Then, the problem of beaconing congestion control has been formulated as non-cooperative games, and algorithms for finding the equilibrium point of the games have been presented. Vehicles as players of the games adjust their beacon rate or power or both, based on the proposed algorithms so that channel load is controlled at a desired level. The algorithms are overhead free and fairness in rate or power or both rate and power allocation are achieved without exchanging excess information in beacons. Every vehicle just needs local information on channel load while good fairness is achieved globally. In addition, the protocols have per-vehicle parameters, which makes them capable of meeting application requirements. Every vehicle can control its share of bandwidth individually based on its dynamics or requirements, while the whole usage of the bandwidth is controlled at an acceptable level. The algorithms are stable, computationally inexpensive and converge in a short time, which makes them suitable for the dynamic environment of VANETs. The correct functionality of the algorithms has been validated in several high density scenarios using simulations.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London
Appears in Collections:Electronic and Computer Engineering
Dept of Electronic and Computer Engineering Theses

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