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|Title:||High performance computing for the discontinuous Galerkin methods|
|Keywords:||High order polynomial approximation FEM;C1 basis functions;Schwarz method;Multigrid method;Parallel computing with OpenMP and MPI|
|Publisher:||Brunel University London|
|Abstract:||Discontinuous Galerkin methods form a class of numerical methods to find a solution of partial differential equations by combining features of finite element and finite volume methods. Methods are defined using a weak form of a particular model problem, allowing for discontinuities in the discrete trial and test spaces. Using a discontinuous discrete space mesh provides proper flexibility and a compact discretisation pattern, allowing a multidomain and multiphysics simulation. Discontinuous Galerkin methods with a higher approximation polynomial order, the socalled p-version, performs better in terms of convergence rate, compared with the low order h-version with smaller element sizes and bigger mesh. However, the condition number of the Galerkin system grows subsequently. This causes surge in the amount of required storage, computational complexity and in the time required for computation. We use the following three approaches to keep the advantages and eliminate the disadvantages. The first approach will be a specific choice of basis functions which we call C1 polynomials. These ensure that the majority of integrals over the edge of the mesh elements disappears. This reduces the total number of non-zero elements in the resulting system. This decreases the computational complexity without loss in precision. This approach does not affect the number of iterations required by chosen Conjugate Gradients method when compared to the other choice of basis functions. It actually decreases the total number of algebraic operations performed. The second approach is the introduction of suitable preconditioners. In our case, the Additive two-layer Schwarz method, developed in , for the iterative Conjugate Gradients method is considered. This directly affects the spectral condition number of the system matrix and decreases the number of iterations required for the computation. This approach, however, increases the total number of algebraic operations and might require more operational time. To tackle the rise in the number of algebraic operations, we introduced a modified Additive two-layer non-overlapping Schwarz method with a Multigrid process. This using a fixed low-order approximation polynomial degree on a coarse grid. We show that this approach is spectrally equivalent to the first preconditioner, and requires less time for computation. The third approach is a development of an efficient mathematical framework for distributed data structure. This allows a high performance, massively parallel, implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method. We demonstrate that it is possible to exploit properties of the system matrix and C1 polynomials as basis functions to optimize the parallel structures. The previously mentioned parallel data structure allows us to parallelize at the same time both the matrix-vector multiplication routines for the Conjugate Gradients method, as well as the preconditioner routines on the solver level. This minimizes the transfer ratio amongst the distributed system. Finally, we combined all three approaches and created a framework, which allowed us to successfully implement all of the above.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London|
|Appears in Collections:||Dept of Mathematics Theses|
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