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dc.contributor.authorGao, F-
dc.contributor.authorFan, Z-
dc.identifier.citationFan, Z (2022) 'Competition for Nucleation and Grain Initiation during Solidification' in Metals, 12(9). pp.1 - 17.
dc.description.abstractWithout the addition of any grain refiner, the inclusion particles in a melt will induce heterogeneous nucleation and grain initiation during the solidification of metallic materials. However, with grain refiner addition, the exogenous particles (from the grain refiner) and the native inclusions (e.g., oxide particles) will co-exist in the melt, and there will be competition for nucleation and grain initiation among different types of solid particles. In this paper, we analyze such competition in Al and Mg alloys using a numerical solidification model that we have developed previously. The numerical calculations show that the competition for nucleation is strongly dependent on nucleation undercooling of the different types of particles, while the competition for grain initiation is closely related to the sizes of solid particles. Based on the numerical results, the general rules of competition for nucleation and grain initiation have been developed: nucleation starts with particles of minimum nucleation undercooling, followed by particles with progressively larger nucleation undercooling; and grain initiation starts with solid particles of the largest size, followed by solid particles with progressively smaller sizes.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEPSRC (UK) under grant number EP/N007638/1en_US
dc.format.extent1512 - 1512-
dc.publisherMDPI AGen_US
dc.rights© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
dc.subjectgrain initiationen_US
dc.subjectgrain refinementen_US
dc.titleCompetition for Nucleation and Grain Initiation during Solidificationen_US
pubs.publication-statusPublished online-
Appears in Collections:Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST)

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