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|Title:||Characterisation of groundwater in mainly old and closed landfill sites|
|Keywords:||Chemical analysis;Groundwater quality;London;Control of Pollution Act 1974;Boreholes|
|Publisher:||Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses|
|Abstract:||A study is made of the use of chemical analysis of groundwater samples to assess groundwater quality. Samples from forty-seven boreholes within and around ten landfill sites in the London Borough of Hounslow were analysed. Most of the landfill sites studied were filled prior to the implementation of the Control of Pollution Act 1974 and were not designed with environmental protection in mind. Boreholes were tested for methane, carbon dioxide and groundwater samples were analysed for electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium nitrogen (NI14-N), COD, TOC, Cl-, NO3, SO42-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, oxidation - reduction - potential (ORP) and pH. The first ten of these analytical parameters were considered for groundwater quality assessment and the most important selected for more detailed study namely CH4, C02, EC, NH4-N, COD and TOC. Pollution ratings are allocated on the basis of single pollutant analytical data and averaged for each of the bore hole samples. Goodness of fit values between the single analyte values and the average data were calculated and no set of single analyte data was found to provide good groundwater quality assessment. A series of formulae combining the six analyte parameters was considered and the data evaluated by goodness of fit calculations to provide an effective means of assessing groundwater quality. The ratings obtained from the best formula are compared with historical broad band classification of landfill sites and show how sites must be assessed on the basis of samples taken from within the site and not around the perimeter. The production of acetic acid in the acetogenic phase of landfill reactions will increase the leachability and mobility of many metal pollutants and particularly of lead. Studies on the leachability of lead in acetic acid media show how lead solubility is increased in acetic acid media by the formation of triacetatolead(II) species, Pb(CH3CO2)3-.|
|Description:||This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University.|
|Appears in Collections:||Brunel University Theses|
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