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Title: Cell transformation assays for prediction of carcinogenic potential: State of the science and future research needs
Authors: Creton, S
Aardema, MJ
Carmichael, PL
Harvey, JS
Martin, FL
Newbold, RF
O'Donovan, MRO
Pant, K
Poth, A
Sakai, A
Sasaki, K
Scott, AD
Schechtman, LM
Shen, RR
Tanaka, N
Yasaei, H
Keywords: Cell transformation assays (CTAs);Carcinogens;EU Cosmetics Directive
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society
Citation: Mutagenesis, 27(1): 93 - 101, Jan 2012
Abstract: Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of understanding of the mechanistic basis of the assays has limited their acceptance for regulatory purposes. However, recent drivers to find alternative carcinogenicity assessment methodologies, such as the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive, have fuelled renewed interest in CTAs. Research is currently ongoing to improve the objectivity of the assays, reveal the underlying molecular changes leading to transformation and explore the use of novel cell types. The UK NC3Rs held an international workshop in November 2010 to review the current state of the art in this field and provide directions for future research. This paper outlines the key points highlighted at this meeting.
Description: Copyright @ 2011 The Authors. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN: 0267-8357
Appears in Collections:Biological Sciences
Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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