Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Investigation and optimisation of commercial refrigeration cycles using the natural refrigerant CO2
Authors: Shilliday, Jason Alexander
Advisors: Tassou, SA
Keywords: Refrigeration;Carbon dioxide;Natural refrigerant;Supermarket;Energy
Issue Date: 2012
Publisher: Brunel University School of Engineering and Design PhD Theses
Abstract: With tighter regulations on the use of Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) due to their high GWP (Global Warming Potential), many supermarket operators are looking for alternative refrigerants. To contribute to this, the objectives of this thesis are to investigate the practicality, environmental benefits and economic viability of an all-CO2 transcritical refrigeration system suitable for small supermarkets. Whilst the environmental benefits of using CO2 as a refrigerant are clear, there is rather limited practical and technical knowledge on the design and operation of these systems. In this work, simulation models of a transcritical ‘booster’ CO2 refrigeration system have been developed to investigate and evaluate its performance against that of a traditional HFC system. The models were verified using test results from an experimental CO2 system built at Brunel University. To evaluate the performance of the CO2 refrigeration system in the field, energy data from a real supermarket employing a HFC refrigeration system was used for energy simulations. The results demonstrate that the annual energy consumption of the CO2 refrigeration system in a small supermarket in Northern Ireland would be equivalent to that of a typical HFC refrigeration system. However, the low GWP of CO2 will result in a 50% reduction in the combined direct and indirect CO2 emissions over the operational life of the system assuming an annual leakage rate of 15%. Northern Ireland has a high number of small supermarkets due to its rural population, approximately 615. The CO2 system presented in this research could replace the existing R404A systems in these small supermarkets resulting in emissions reduction of up to 188,752 tCO2e. This research has developed selection techniques and criteria to be considered by supermarket designers and operators when developing national strategies for the eventual phase-out of HFC refrigerants in all supermarket sizes. The validated simulation models developed in this research combined with the detailed geographical and refrigeration load ratio analysis presented, will provide valuable information that will assist system designers and operators in the efficient design and optimisation of CO2 technology for small supermarkets.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Engineering and awarded by Brunel University.
Appears in Collections:Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Dept of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering Theses

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Appendix_B.pdf161.21 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
Appendix_A.pdf156.35 kBAdobe PDFView/Open
FulltextThesis.pdf6.31 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

Items in BURA are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.