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|Title:||Use of a battery of chemical and ecotoxicological methods for the assessment of the efficacy of wastewater treatment processes to remove estrogenic potency|
|Keywords:||Ecotoxicology;YES Screen;LCMS/MS;SPE;GPC;Estrogenic;Endocrine Disrupting Compound;Green Chemistry;Wasterwater Treatment;Fathead minnow;Vitellogenin|
|Citation:||Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE), 2016|
|Abstract:||Endocrine Disrupting Compounds pose a substantial risk to the aquatic environment. Ethinylestradiol (EE2) and estrone (E1) have recently been included in a watch list of environmental pollutants under the European Water Framework Directive. Municipal wastewater treatment plants are major contributors to the estrogenic potency of surface waters. Much of the estrogenic potency of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can be attributed to the discharge of steroid estrogens including estradiol (E2), EE2 and E1 due to incomplete removal of these substances at the treatment plant. An evaluation of the efficacy of wastewater treatment processes requires the quantitative determination of individual substances most often undertaken using chemical analysis methods. Most frequently used methods include Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GCMS/MS) or Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Although very useful for regulatory purposes, targeted chemical analysis can only provide data on the compounds (and specific metabolites) monitored. Ecotoxicology methods additionally ensure that any by-products produced or unknown estrogenic compounds present are also assessed via measurement of their biological activity. A number of in vitro bioassays including the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) are available to measure the estrogenic activity of wastewater samples. Chemical analysis in conjunction with in vivo and in vitro bioassays provides a useful toolbox for assessment of the efficacy and suitability of wastewater treatment processes with respect to estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds. This paper utilizes a battery of chemical and ecotoxicology tests to assess conventional, advanced and emerging wastewater treatment processes in laboratory and field studies.|
|Appears in Collections:||Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers|
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