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Title: Involvement of innate immune humoral factors, CFHR5 and SP-D, in glioblastoma multiforme
Authors: De Cordova, Syreeta
Advisors: Kishore, U
Slijepcevic, P
Keywords: Complement;Factor H;Lung surfactant;Immuno-oncology;Astrocyte
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Brunel University London
Abstract: Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an extremely aggressive grade IV brain tumour that is highly infiltrative and can spread to other parts of the brain quickly. It is the most common primary brain tumour where patients have a median survival of 14.6 months. Symptoms vary depending upon the location of the tumour and include seizures, progressive headaches and focal neurological deficit. The poor prognosis is characterised by deregulation of many key signalling pathways involving survival, growth, apoptosis and evasion of immune surveillance. In this study, we investigated whether complement factor H related protein 5 (CFHR5) from primary GBM cells direct from patients exhibited functional activity similar to factor H. The presence of CFHR5 was validated by western blot and ELISA technique from B30, B31 and B33 primary GBM cells. The functional capacity of CFHR5 was examined through the alternative pathway, co-factor, and decay acceleration assay. We demonstrated that CFHR5 was able to inhibit the alternative pathway through the same mechanism as factor H. Emerging evidence had shown that the innate immune protein surfactant protein D (SP-D) and recombinant human SP-D (rhSP-D) were able to induce apoptosis in eosinophilic leukaemic cells. We studied the ability of rhSP-D to induce apoptosis in U87 GBM cells through apoptotic and viability assays. rhSP-D was unable to mediate cell death and instead increased cell viability. This led us to investigate the expression of SP-D in U87 and B30 GBM cells through western blot, ELISA and immuno-fluorescence detection. We demonstrated novel information about the production of SP-D by GBM cells. To extend our study, we investigated the interaction of THP-1 macrophage with rhSP-D bound U87 cells. We carried out live cell imaging, RT-qPCR, and cell viability assays, to study the changes in cytokine expression and viability of cells. THP-1 did not engulf U87 cells; however, it did reduce the number of cells and decrease the expression of pro-tumourigenic cytokines. This study highlights the ability of primary GBM cells to evade innate immune detection by the secretion of functionally active CFHR5. It also demonstrated the ability of U87 to evade destruction by rhSP-D and THP-1 highlighting the extremely aggressive behaviour of the tumour and lack of new treatment to improve prognosis in over a decade.
Description: This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London
Appears in Collections:Biological Sciences
Dept of Life Sciences Theses

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