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Title: Predicting the Formation of Haloacetonitriles and Haloacetamides by Simulated Distribution System Tests
Authors: Sfynia, C
Bond, T
Ganidi, N
Kanda, R
Templeton, MR
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: Procedia Engineering, 2017, 186 pp. 186 - 192
Abstract: © 2017 The Authors. Unintended chemical reactions between disinfectants and natural organic matter (NOM) or anthropogenic compounds in natural waters result in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. To date, numerous groups of disinfection by-products have been identified in drinking water, some of which are suspected to be of public health importance and thus are regulated in the water industry. Recent studies have suggested that some unregulated nitrogen-containing DBPs, such as haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetamides (HAcAms), may have greater toxicity than the currently regulated groups (trihalomethanes, THMs, and haloacetic acids, HAAs). There is only sparse information on the behaviour of the HANs and HAcAms in distribution systems. It is however known that HANs can be hydrolysed to the HAcAms, which in turn can hydrolyse to form dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs). Simulated distribution systems tests (SDS) have been successfully applied to predict the formation of THMs and HAAs using a simple and inexpensive lab-based technique, and have been recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to American water utilities for collecting information about the levels of DBPs occurring in their distribution systems. SDS tests aim to simulate the water quality, disinfectant residuals, and water ages of a real distribution system, allowing easy sampling at prescribed time intervals for analysis of DBP formation. These tests are also a useful tool for considering the impact of potential changes to distribution practices, such as switching from chlorination to chloramination, for example. Therefore, a sampling survey was conducted in four surface water treatment plants in the UK to examine the formation of HANs and HAcAms in both real distribution systems and SDS tests. The samples were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The research sought to determine whether SDS can be a useful predictive tool for HANs and HAcAms in distribution systems and what levels of prediction error are to be expected.
Appears in Collections:Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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