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|Title:||Evolution of Non-Metallic Inclusions Through Processing in Ti-V Microalloyed 316L and Al-V Microalloyed 17-4PH Stainless Steels for Hipping Applications|
|Citation:||Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science|
|Abstract:||Powders produced by air-melted gas atomization (AMGA) and vacuum induction gas atomization (VIGA) from Ti-V microalloyed 316L and Al-V microalloyed 17-4PH stainless steels along with their feedstock material and Hot Isostatically Pressed (HIP’d) products have been examined. Inclusion characteristics and development through process along with changes in grain size have been characterized. The main findings are that a thin oxide film forms on the powder surface, thicker for the 316L powder than the 17-4PH powder as indicated by XPS analysis of selected powder precursors, and large inclusions (predominantly oxides) are also observed on the 316L powder. This results in a high number of inclusions, including more complex two-phase inclusions, on the prior particle boundaries in the HIP’d material. Grain growth occurs during HIPping of the 316L powders with some evidence of inclusions locally pinning boundaries. In the vacuum-melted powder, smaller Ti-rich inclusions are present which give more grain boundary pinning than in the air-melted powder where Ti was lost from the material during melting. Consideration has also been made to determine the variation of Ti and V microalloying elements and residual Cu through processing. It was found that Ti was lost during air melting but partly retained after vacuum melting leading to the presence of fine and complex Ti-containing precipitates which provided grain boundary pinning during HIPping and heat treatment. V was retained in the melt by the use of both AMGA and VIGA processes, and therefore available for precipitation during HIPping. Residual Cu was retained during both air and vacuum melting and was associated with Mn S and Mn O S inclusions overwhelmingly outweighing that of Mn O inclusions in the two HIP’d 316L samples.|
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