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dc.contributor.authorHarkness-Armstrong, C-
dc.contributor.authorMaganaris, C-
dc.contributor.authorWalton, R-
dc.contributor.authorWright, DM-
dc.contributor.authorBass, A-
dc.contributor.authorBaltzopoulos, V-
dc.contributor.authorO'Brien, TD-
dc.identifier.citationHarkness-Armstrong. C., Maganaris. C., Walton. R., Wright. D.M., Bass. A., Baltzopoulos. V. and O'Brien. T. D. (2021) 'In vivo operating lengths of the gastrocnemius muscle during gait in children who idiopathically toe-walk'. Experimental Physiology, 106, pp. 1- 8. doi: org/10.1113/EP089658.en_US
dc.descriptionDATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.en_US
dc.description.abstractChildren who idiopathically toe-walk (ITW) habitually operate at greater plantarflexion angles than typically developing (TD) children, which might result in shorter, sub-optimal gastrocnemius fascicle lengths. However, currently no experimental evidence exists to substantiate this notion. Five children who ITW and 14 TD children completed a gait analysis, whilst gastrocnemius fascicle behaviour was simultaneously quantified using ultrasound. The moment–angle (hip, knee and ankle) and moment–length (gastrocnemius) relationships were determined from isometric maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) on an isokinetic dynamometer combined with ultrasound. During gait, children who ITW operated at more plantarflexed angles (Δ = 20°; P = 0.013) and longer muscle fascicle lengths (Δ = 12 mm; P = 0.008) than TD children. During MVC, no differences in the peak moment of any joint were found. However, peak plantarflexor moment occurred at significantly more plantarflexed angles (−16 vs. 1°; P = 0.010) and at longer muscle fascicle lengths (44 vs. 37 mm; P = 0.001) in children who ITW than TD children. Observed alterations in the moment–angle and moment–length relationships of children who ITW coincided with the ranges used during gait. Therefore, the gastrocnemius muscle in children who ITW operates close to the peak of the force–length relationship, similarly to TD children. Thus, this study indicates that idiopathic toe-walking is truly an ankle joint pathology, and children who ITW present with substantial alterations in the gastrocnemius muscle functional properties, which appear well adapted to the characteristic demands of equinus gait. These findings should be considered when prescribing clinical treatments to restore typical gait.en_US
dc.format.extent1 - 8-
dc.format.mediumPrint - Electronic-
dc.publisherExperimental Physiologyen_US
dc.rightsCopyright © 2021 The Authors. Experimental Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.-
dc.subjectidiopathic toe-walkingen_US
dc.titleIn vivo operating lengths of the gastrocnemius muscle during gait in children who idiopathically toe-walken_US
dc.relation.isPartOfExperimental Physiology-
Appears in Collections:Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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