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Title: Effects of music tempi on music preference, intrinsic motivation, and flow during long-duration exercise
Authors: Karageorghis, CI
Jones, L
Stuart, DP
Keywords: Asynchronous music;Motor rhythm;Physical activity;Rhythm response;Tempo
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Georg Thieme Verlag
Citation: International Journal of Sports Medicine (in press 2008)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of music tempi on tempo preference, intrinsic motivation, and flow during long-duration exercise (≈26 min). Subjects (N = 29) selected the music of a single artist then walked at 70% of maximum heart rate reserve (maxHRR) on a treadmill under three experimental conditions (medium tempi, fast tempi, and mixed tempi) and a no-music control. A tempo preference item, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and Flow State Scale-2 were completed after each trial. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model (Gender x Condition) ANOVA and MANOVA. The Gender x Condition interaction was non-significant in both analyses (p > 0.05). Contrary to expectations, higher preference scores were recorded for medium tempi than for mixed tempi (means: 7.8 + 1.3 vs. 7.1 + 1.1). The medium tempi music also yielded the highest levels of intrinsic motivation (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons showed that interest-enjoyment was higher for medium tempi when compared to mixed tempi, 95% CI = 1.80 - 8.48, p = 0.001, and that each of the experimental conditions yielded higher scores than the no-music control. Also, pressure-tension was lower for medium tempi compared to fast tempi, 95% CI = -3.44 - -0.19, p = 0.022, and for both medium and mixed tempi compared to control (95% CI = -5.33 - -2.89, p = 0.000; 95% CI = -4.24 - -0.64, p = 0.004). A main effect was found for global flow (p = 0.000) with the highest mean score evident in the medium tempi condition (14.6 + 1.5). Follow-up comparisons indicated that the medium tempi condition yielded higher flow scores than the control, 95% CI = 1.25 - 3.60, p = .000, as did fast tempi, 95% CI = 0.89 - 3.14, p = 0.000, and mixed tempi, 95% CI = 1.36 - 3.76, p = 0.000. It was concluded that a medium tempi music program was the most appropriate for an exercise intensity of 70% maxHRR.
Appears in Collections:Sport
Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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