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Title: Reading Difficulties in English and Japanese
Issue Date: 2017
Citation: Japanese Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2017
Abstract: Developmental Dyslexia in English and other European Languages/orthographies Reading and writing skills are one of the most important cognitive skills that every child has to acquire, and also are considered to be central to educational attainment in the world. Yet there are some children (and adults) who unfortunately do not develop these literacy skills and are said to be afflicted by developmental dyslexia. Developmental dyslexia is characterised by unexpected reading problems that cannot be attributed to poor hearing or vision, low intelligence or inadequate education and social opportunities (Snowling, 1987; Shaywiz, 1988). A more detailed working definition of dyslexia is given by the Rose Review (2009) as follows: Dyslexia is a learning difficulty which primarily affects the skills involved in accurate and fluent word reading and spelling, which is characterised by difficulties in (i) phonological awareness, (ii) verbal memory and (iii) verbal processing speed. Dyslexia occurs across the range of intellectual abilities, sometimes co-occurring other developmental disorders, such as specific language impairment (SLI), poor comprehenders, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, attention or attention deficit hyperactivity deficit (ADHD, often as ADD). However this Review notes that these developmental disorders themselves are not the markers of dyslexia. Dyslexia is now considered as one of the Specific Learning Difficulties in the UK, and more specifically these children are considered as children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) by the Department of Education in the UK (2014), and are given appropriate educational support.
Appears in Collections:Dept of Education Research Papers

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