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|Title:||Human properdin modulates macrophage: Mycobacterium bovis BCG interaction via thrombospondin repeats (TSR) 4 and 5|
|Citation:||Frontiers in Immunology|
|Abstract:||Mycobacterium tuberculosis can proficiently enter phagocytes and diminish complement 23 activation on its cell surface. Within phagocytes, the mycobacterium can suppress 24 macrophage apoptosis and survive the intracellular environment. Complement regulatory 25 proteins such as factor H may facilitate pathogen-macrophage interactions during 26 tuberculosis infection. In this study, we show that M. bovis BCG binds properdin, an up27 regulator of the complement alternative pathway. TSR4+5, a recombinant form of 28 thrombospondin repeats 4 and 5 of human properdin expressed in tandem, which is an 29 inhibitor of the alternative pathway, was also able to bind M. bovis BCG. Properdin and 30 TSR4+5 were found to inhibit uptake of M. bovis BCG by THP-1 macrophage cells in a 31 dose-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR assays using transcripts from the THP-1 32 cells revealed elevated pro-inflammatory responses (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in the presence 33 of properdin and TSR4+5, which gradually decreased over 6 hours. Correspondingly, anti34 inflammatory responses (IL-10, TGF-β and IL-12) showed suppressed levels of expression in 35 the presence of properdin, which gradually increased over 6 hours. Multiplex cytokine array 36 analysis further revealed that properdin and TSR4+5 significantly enhanced the pro37 inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-1α) at 24 hours, which declined at 48 hours, 38 whereas the anti-inflammatory response (IL-10 and IL-12) was suppressed. Our results 39 suggest that properdin may interfere with mycobacterial entry into macrophages involving 40 TSR4 and TSR5, particularly during the initial stages of infection, thus, affecting the 41 extracellular survival of the pathogen. This study offers novel insights into non-complement 42 related functions of properdin, which may be independent of other complement proteins 43 during host-pathogen interactions in tuberculosis. Thus, human properdin modulates 44 macrophage-M. bovis BCG interaction via TSR4+5. Properdin residing in the granules of 45 neutrophils is secreted upon stimulation and may also be produced by other cell types such as 3 monocytes, bone marrow progenitor cell lines and T cells. The local production 46 of properdin 47 may be crucial for recruitment at sites of infection and in the control of M. tuberculosis 48 infection.|
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