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Title: Mental Imagery and Chunks: Empirical and Computational Findings
Authors: Waters, A J
Gobet, F
Keywords: imagery;chess;expertise;perceptual expertise;intersection positions;random stimuli;CHREST;Stroop;chunking;cognitive modeling;blindfold chess;Kosslyn;Vicente;mind’s eye;time parameters;DeGroot
Issue Date: 2007
Publisher: The Psychonomic Society
Citation: Waters, A. J., & Gobet, F. (in press). Mental imagery and chunks: Empirical and computational findings. Memory & Cognition.
Abstract: To investigate experts’ imagery in chess, players were required to recall briefly-presented positions in which the pieces were placed on the intersections between squares (intersection positions). Position types ranged from game positions to positions where both the piece distribution and location were randomized. Simulations were run with the CHREST model (Gobet & Simon, 2000). The simulations assumed that pieces had to be centered back one by one to the middle of the squares in the mind’s eye before chunks could be recognized. Consistent with CHREST’s predictions, chess players (N = 36), ranging from weak amateurs to grandmasters, exhibited much poorer recall on intersection positions than on standard positions (pieces placed on centers of squares). On the intersection positions, the skill difference in recall was larger on game positions than on the randomized positions. Participants recalled bishops better than knights, suggesting that Stroop-like interference impairs recall of the latter. The data supported both the time parameter in CHREST for shifting pieces in the mind’s eye (125 ms per piece) and the seriality assumption. In general, the study reinforces the plausibility of CHREST as a model of cognition.
Appears in Collections:Psychology
Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers

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