Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/20311
Title: Race-ethnic and gender differences in representation within the English National Health Service: a quantitative analysis
Authors: Milner, A
Baker, E
Jeraj, S
Butt, J
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: BMJ
Citation: BMJ Open, 2020, 10(2):e034258 (6 pp.)
Abstract: Objectives To evaluate race-ethnic and gender disparities in National Health Service (NHS) England employment in position, prestige and pay. Design National study using data from NHS Digital. Setting Trusts and clinical commissioning groups in England. Participants 1 105 390 NHS Hospital and Community Health Service staff. Results Chinese people (42.9%, 95% CI 41.7% to 44.1%) are the most likely to be employed as doctors, followed by Asians (28.6%, 95% CI 28.3% to 28.8%) and people of mixed race/ethnicity (17.9%, 95% CI 17.3% to 18.4%); while white people (6.8%, 95% CI 6.7% to 6.8%) are less likely to be employed as doctors. However, white doctors are the most likely to be in the highest paid positions: 46.0% (95% CI 45.6% to 46.4%) of white doctors are consultants, whereas only 33.4% (95% CI 31.6% to 35.2%) of Chinese doctors are consultants. Black people are under-represented both among doctors and as consultants: 6.5% (95% CI 6.4% to 6.7%) of black employees are doctors and 30.6% (95% CI 29.2% to 32.0%) of black doctors are consultants. We found similar results for nurses and health visitors, where white people are over-represented in the higher pay bands. However, among support staff for doctors, nurses and midwives, we found that Chinese people were over-represented in the higher pay bands. These race-ethnic differences were similar for women and men. Additionally, we found that men were more likely to be employed in higher pay bands than women, and this gender disparity was apparent across race-ethnic groups. Conclusions Race-ethnic and gender disparities exist in the NHS in position, prestige and pay. To begin to overcome such disparities, the NHS must collect data using consistent race-ethnic categories in order to examine differences over time.
URI: https://bura.brunel.ac.uk/handle/2438/20311
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-034258
ISSN: 2044-6055
Appears in Collections:Dept of Clinical Sciences Research Papers

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