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Title: Validating the Breathing Vigilance Questionnaire for use in Dysfunctional Breathing
Authors: Steinmann, J
Lewis, A
Ellmers, T
Jones, M
MacBean, V
Kal, E
Issue Date: 14-Jul-2022
Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Citation: Steinmann, J., Lewis, A., Ellmer, T., Jones, M., MacBean, V., Kal, E. (2022) 'Validating the Breathing Vigilance Questionnaire for use in Dysfunctional Breathing', bioRxiv, (preprint), pp. 1 - 1. doi:10.1101/2022.07.11.22277501.
Abstract: Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is common among people with and without primary respiratory pathology. While anxiety contributes to DB, the underpinning mechanism is unclear. One explanation is that anxiety induces excessive conscious monitoring of breathing, disrupting ‘automatic’ breathing mechanics. We validated a new tool that quantifies such breathing-related ‘hypervigilance’: the Breathing Vigilance Questionnaire (Breathe-VQ). Three-hundred-and-forty healthy adults (Mage=27.3 years, range: 18-71; 161 men) were recruited online. We developed an initial Breathe-VQ (11 items, 1-5 Likert scale) based on the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Scale, using feedback from the target population and clinicians. At baseline, participants completed the Breathe-VQ, Nijmegen Questionnaire (NQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (form 2), and Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale (assessing general conscious processing). Eighty-three people repeated the Breathe-VQ two weeks later. We removed five items based on item-level analysis. The resulting six-item Breathe-VQ questionnaire (score range: 6-30) has excellent internal (alpha=.892) and test-retest reliability (ICC=.810), a minimal detectable change of 6.5, and no floor/ceiling effects. Concurrent validity was evidenced by significant positive correlations with trait anxiety and conscious processing scores (r’s=.35-.46). Participants at high-risk of having DB (NQ>23; N=76) had significantly higher Breathe-VQ score (M=19.1±5.0) than low-risk peers (N=225; M=13.8±5.4; p<.001). In this ‘high-risk’ group, Breathe-VQ and NQ-scores were significantly associated (p=.005), even when controlling for risk factors (e.g., trait anxiety). The Breathe-VQ is a valid and reliable tool to measure breathing vigilance. Breathing vigilance may contribute to DB, and could represent a therapeutic target. Further research is warranted to further test the Breathe-VQ’s prognostic value, and assess intervention effects.
Description: Preprint
ISSN: 2692-8205
Appears in Collections:Dept of Clinical Sciences Research Papers

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