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Title: Inhibition of Factor XII Attenuates Prothrombotic Complications in Sickle Cell Mice
Authors: Sparkenbaugh, E
Abrams, CM
Miller, MD
Cooley, BC
Ilich, A
Yadav, S
Wallisch, M
Key, NS
Gruber, A
Gavins, FNE
Pawlinski, R
Issue Date: 5-Nov-2021
Publisher: American Society of Hematology
Citation: Sparkenbaugh, K. et al. (2021) 'Inhibition of Factor XII Attenuates Prothrombotic Complications in Sickle Cell Mice', Blood, 2021, 138 (Supplement 1), pp. 189 - 189. doi: 10.1182/blood-2021-152753.
Abstract: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hemoglobinopathy, affecting millions worldwide. Although characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia and recurrent vaso-occlusive episodes, SCD is increasingly recognized as a hypercoagulable state. Indeed, SCD patients have an 11-25% incidence of venous thromboembolism at a median age of 30 years, associated with a 3-fold increased risk of mortality. Moreover, ischemic stroke and silent cerebral infarctions occur in 7-13% of SCD patients. We have previously shown that tissue factor, an initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway, contributes to thrombo-inflammation and microvascular cerebral thrombosis in mouse models of SCD . Recently, the intrinsic coagulation pathway, including Factor XII (FXII), has received significant attention because targeting components of this pathway reduces thrombosis without affecting primary hemostasis. We have shown that FXII deficiency reduces plasma markers of thrombin generation and inflammation in sickle mice. However, the contribution of FXII to thrombosis and prothrombotic complications in SCD is not known. In this study we evaluated the effects of blocking FXII activity on venous thrombosis and ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced brain injury in SCD mice. First, Townes HbSS mice (SS) and non-sickle Townes HbAA controls (AA) (male and female, 16 weeks) received anti-FXII antibody or control IgGκ1 (10 mg/kg, IV) 30 minutes prior to subjecting them to venous thrombosis, initiated by applying positive current (3 volts, 90 sec) to the femoral vein. To visualize platelet and fibrin accumulation, mice were injected with rhodamine 6G and anti-fibrin antibody 59D8 labeled with Alexa Fluor 647, respectively. The femoral vein thrombi were imaged by intravital fluorescence microscopy using time-lapse capture every 10 seconds, to acquire images of fibrin and platelets over 60 min. The accumulation of platelets and fibrin was quantified for relative intensity of each fluorophore over the region of the observed thrombus. As previously shown, thrombi of SS/IgG mice showed an increased fibrin and platelet accumulation compared to AA/IgG group. Importantly, 15D10 treatment significantly attenuated both fibrin (p<0.001) and platelet (p<0.05) deposition over time in SS mice compared to SS/IgG group. The same effect of 15D10 treatment was observed in AA mice. At the end of experiment, clots were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and clot volume was assessed histomorphometrically (Nikon Ti-2, FIJI Software). Surprisingly, despite higher fibrin content, clots from SS/IgG mice had significantly smaller volume than clots from AA/IgG group (0.32 ± 0.04 versus 0.60 ± 0.11 mm 3, p<0.05). Importantly, administration of 15D10 significantly reduced clot volume in both SS (0.086 ± 0.01 mm 3, p<0.05) and AA mice (0.1 ± 0.02 mm 3, p<0.05). Next, AA and SS mice (male and female, 8-10 weeks) were subjected to brain IR injury induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 60 minutes followed by 24 hours of reperfusion (mouse model of ischemic stroke). 15D10 or control IgGκ1 (10 mg/kg, IV) were injected 30 minutes before occlusion and again at 6 hours into the reperfusion period to generate 3 experimental groups: AA/IgG, SS/IgG and SS/15D10. All analyzed parameters of brain IR injury were significantly worse in the SS/IgG group compared to the AA/IgG group. Compared to IgG, pre-treatment of SS mice with 15D10 significantly attenuated neuronal damage determined by volume of brain infarction (11.7 ± 3.7 vs 24.9 ± 2.4%, p<0.001) and improved behavioral deficit assessed by mean stroke score (9.0 ± 0.9 vs 14.6 ± 0.9, p<0.01). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in leukocytes rolling (1978.0 ± 93.5 vs 1517.0 ± 180.3 rolling leukocytes/sec/mm 2, p<0.001), and significant reduction in the number of adherent leukocytes (367.2 ± 49.0 vs 723.4 ± 48.5, adherent leukocytes/mm 2, p<0.001) observed in the brain microvasculature of SS mice treated with 15D10 compared to SS/IgG group. Together, our data indicates that in the mouse model of SCD FXII contributes to the experimental venous thrombosis and ischemic stroke. Given that targeting the intrinsic pathway can reduce thrombosis without affecting hemostasis, our data suggest that targeting FXII might be a beneficial treatment in reducing inflammatory and thrombotic complications in SCD patients without a risk of bleeding.
ISSN: 0006-4971
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