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|Title:||Ste20 and Cla4 modulate the expression of the glycerol biosynthesis enzyme Gpd1 by a novel MAPK-independent pathway|
|Keywords:||budding yeast;glycerol biosynthesis;Gpd1;p21‐activated kinases;glucose;hyperosmotic stress|
|Citation:||Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications|
|Abstract:||©2019 The Authors. p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important signalling molecules with a wide range of functions. In budding yeast, the main PAKs Ste20 and Cla4 regulate the response to hyperosmotic stress, which is an excellent model for the adaptation to changing environmental conditions. In this pathway, the only known function of Ste20 and Cla4 is the activation of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade through Ste11. This eventually leads to increased transcription of glycerol biosynthesis genes, the most important response to hyperosmotic shock. Here, we show that Ste20 and Cla4 not only stimulate transcription, they also bind to the glycerol biosynthesis enzymes Gpd1, Gpp1 and Gpp2. Protein levels of Gpd1, the enzyme that catalyzes the rate limiting step in glycerol synthesis, positively correlate with glucose availability. Using a chemical genetics approach, we find that simultaneous inactivation of STE20 and CLA4 reduces the glucose-induced increase of Gpd1 levels, whereas the deletion of either STE20 or CLA4 alone has no effect. This is also observed for the hyperosmotic stress-induced increase of Gpd1 levels. Importantly, under both conditions the deletion of STE11 has no effect on Gpd1 induction. These observations suggest that Ste20 and Cla4 not only have a role in the transcriptional regulation of GPD1 through Ste11. They also seem to modulate GPD1 expression at another level such as translation or protein degradation.|
|Appears in Collections:||Dept of Life Sciences Research Papers|
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